The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between peer interaction, self-regulation and leadership of young children, and examine the mediating effect of self-regulation ability in the effect of peer interaction on the leadership of young children. The subjects of the study were 211 children aged 4 to 5 who attended in child education institutes in the Seoul-Incheon area. A survey was conducted on teachers who worked in kindergartens and day care centers with questionnaires, and the collected data were analyzed. For data analysis, SPSS WIN 21 program was used to calculate mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis, and correlation analysis was conducted. Also, the structural equation model was validated using Amos 21, and the following results were obtained. First, the positive peer interaction, self-regulation and leadership of children were positively associated. Second, the peer interaction did not have a significant effect on the leadership of young children, and the self-regulation of young children had a positive effect on the leadership of young children. It was found that peer interaction had a positive effect on the self-regulation of young children, and in the relationship of effects on the leadership of young children, the self-regulation was found to play a role of significant mediating effect. Such results are remarkable elements in leadership education for young children, implying the importance of peer interaction and self-regulation of young children.